See also: 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002

1) Afghanistan
-- civil war between Islamic Taliban religious militia and ethnic Tajik; sponsors of international terrorism

2) Albania -- political violence, terrorism, and attacks by Serbia

3) Algeria -- civil war; increasing anti-government and anti-foreigner violence by the Armed Islamic Group (GIA), Algerian Jihad, and others

4) Angola -- civil war between Angolan troops and UNITA rebels; violence against foreigners

5) Bosnia-Herzegovina/Croatia -- Ethnic violence ant terrorism by Serb, Croatian, and Muslim nationalists; attacks on peacekeeping forces

6) Brazil -- increased drug activity in the west; high crime rates in urban areas

7) Burma (Myanmar) -- ongoing insurgency; drug trafficking and civil unrest

8) Burundi -- Hutu - Tutsi violence

9) Cambodia -- voter intimidation by Khmer Rouge; political and ethnic turmoil

10) China -- political turmoil; ethnic and religious oppression in the northwest

11) Colombia -- violent political insurgencies by the FARC and ELN; drug trafficking and associated violence; paramilitary terrorist activities

12) Cuba -- political violence; terrorism and continued drug trafficking

13) Cyprus -- Greek vs. Turkish conflict, arrival of Russian missiles raises tensions; rioting by displaced illegal immigrants

14) Democratic Republic of the Congo -- civil war, rebels against Kabila's regime encompassing military involvement from regional military involvement

15) Ecuador -- border clashes with Peru; continued drug trafficking

16) Egypt -- anti-government and anti-foreigner violence by the Muslim Brotherhood

17) El Salvador -- increasing criminal activity by former combatants; continued drug trafficking

18) Eritrea -- border clashes with Ethiopia

19) Ethiopia -- border clashes with Eritrea

20) France -- Political and ethnic turmoil resulting in extensive rioting

21) Georgia -- fighting between separatist Abkhaz forces and Georgian irregulars; political dissidence

22) Guatemala -- re-emerging guerilla threat; rise in vigilantism

23) Guinea-Bissau -- rebel anti-government violence; military mutiny; military incursion by Senegal

24) Haiti -- political violence; drug trafficking and associated violence

25) India -- insurgency by Muslim separatist guerrillas and Pakistan-based guerrilla group (Lashkar-e-Tioba); increased border tensions with Pakistan in the Kashmir region; religious violence by militant Hindus against Christians and between Hindus and Muslims; political violence

26) Indonesia -- religious violence between Christians and Muslims; violent political unrest and dissident imprisonment; ethnic violence;

27) Iran -- ethnic, political, and religious violence; terrorist activity by Iraq-based opposition group (Mojahhedin); border clashes with Afghanistan Taleban forces;

28) Iraq -- execution of political prisoners; political unrest; Kurdish insurgency; Turkish military incursion, combat w/ American and British Forces

29) Ireland (including Northern Ireland) -- continuing sectarian violence; IRA and PIRA terrorism

30) Israel -- continued violence between Palestinians and Israeli forces in the Gaza and the West Bank; Wye Peace Accord sparks increased violence and terrorist bombings by extremist splinter factions of the PLO; violence between Hezbollah and Israeli forces on Lebanese border

31) Kenya -- political turmoil and tribal disputes

32) Lebanon -- harboring of Iranian Hezbollah and Syrian Fatah terrorist groups, provoking border violence with Israeli armed forces; political violence, continued drug trafficking;

33) Lesotho -- military mutiny; anti-government rebellion, military intervention by South Africa and Botswana

34) Libya -- sponsor of international terrorism; Fighting Islamic Group (FIG) insurgency

35) Malaysia -- political unrest and anti-government demonstrations; violent riots due to mass deportations of illegal immigrants

36) Mexico -- drug trafficking and related violence; ethnic conflict in Chiapas and Oaxaca by the EZLN; attacks by EPR, election violence against perspective voters

37) Namibia -- separatist movement in the Caprivi Strip; repression of ethnic elements

38) Nicaragua -- Hurricane Mitch damage causes anarchy and repression( esp. in NW region); drug trafficking and related violence

39) Nigeria -- religious and political violence, continued drug trafficking

40) North Korea -- border incidents with the south, unrest due to famine

41) Pakistan -- ethnic and religious violence; border dispute with India over Kashmir region, continued drug trafficking

42) Panama --- associated violence with continued drug trafficking, incursions by FARC rebels from Colombia

43) Peru -- Shining Path guerilla activity; associated violence with continued drug trafficking; border conflict with Ecuador

44) Philippines -- border dispute in South China Sea; flare up Muslim insurgents; political violence during elections

45) Russia -- political, military, ethnic, and religious turmoil; associated violence with continued drug trafficking and organized crime

46) Rwanda -- Hutu - Tutsi ethnic tribal fighting

47) Senegal -- violence between rebel separatists and Senegalese-backed government loyalists

48) Sierra Leone -- temporarily successful coup; continuing clashes between rebels and government; military intervention by Nigeria

49) Somalia -- continued violence between rival clans

50) South Africa -- political assassinations; racial violence; continued drug related violence

51) South Korea -- border incidents with the north

52) Sri Lanka -- continuing ethnic civil war

53) Sudan -- religious/civil war with Sudanese People's Liberation Army in the south; sponsors of international terrorism

54) Syria -- disputes with Turkey over water boundaries and terrorism issues; sheltering Kurdish rebels ( PPK faction)

55) Tajikistan -- insurgency by rebel guerrillas who fail to recognize the 1997 peace agreement that ended civil war

56) Turkey -- Kurdish rebel separatist movement(PPK faction); incursions into Iraq

57) Uganda -- violent insurgency by rebel groups

58) United Kingdom -- continued violence by Irish Republican Army and splinter groups; continued religious violence between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland

59) Yemen -- violent rioting due to government price controls and increases, attacks on tourists

60) Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)-- violent conflict between Serb-dominated Yugoslav forces and ethnic Albanians in western Kosovo; ethnic cleansing

New Countries on the 1998 List

      1. France
      2. Georgia
      3. Guatemala
      4. Lesotho
      5. Malaysia
      6. Namibia
      7. Sri Lanka
      8. Yemen

Countries from the 1997 List removed for the 1998 List

1. Bangladesh - eased tensions in the Chittagong region

2. Central African Republic - reduced tensions after attempted coup

3. Comoros - separatist violence subsided

4. Greece - slow down of Anti-Establishment Struggle bombing campaign

5. Guinea (formerly French Guinea) - reduced rioting and political violence

6. Italy - reduced Mafia and Northern League separatist violence

7. Laos - reduced anti-government guerilla activity

8. Liberia - reduction in civil war

9. Papua New Guinea - Secessionist movement on Bougainville island subsided

10. Spain - reduced Basque (ETA) terrorism

11. Tanzania - reduced border actions with Burundi pulls military from regional conflict

12. Thailand - no major border incursions with Burma

13. Zambia - diminution of turmoil

14. Zimbabwe - reduced political and ethnic violence


*Note .... *1997 Conflict Count listed Congo (Brazzaville) and Congo (Kinshasa). 1998 Conflict Count lists Democratic Republic of Congo. *Burkina Faso had rioting in December over political matters, yet did not trip the wire to be counted in this report.

The National Defense Council Foundation(NDCF) compiles this list annually after reviewing conflicts in over 192 countries. NDCF is a non-profit, 501(c)(3), non-partisan, Think-Tank which studies Defense and Foreign Affairs issues established in 1978. NDCF is located in Alexandria,VA. and does academic analysis, runs an Intern Program and does Refugee Relief in conflict areas( to-date 138 Tons of medicine and food world-wide in conjunction with its fact-finding missions). The criteria for selection onto this conflict list is based on the level of disruption of the socio-economic, political, and security fabric of each country caused by both internal and external conflict which the country is associated with. Accordingly, standardized criteria by a Swedish academic group-- such as 1000 deaths per country -- cannot be applied because of issues such as the demographics of each country and even size and location.

For 1998, the conflict count was at 60, a decrease since 1997... which was 67. Prior year's counts are 1996 at 64, 1995 at 71, 1994 at 70, and 1993 at 62.....with a based line at roughly 35 in 1989( Pre-fall of Berlin Wall). NDCF senses that energy and proliferation problems will drive conflicts in 1999

Once again, the largest cause of this year's total was the continued uni-polar and vacillating leadership by the United States, illogical and selective interventions by various groups( to include the U.N.) and proliferation issues. There is a continuing rise in drug trafficking world-wide, polluting capitalism and destroying democracies. Furthermore, media generated raising expectations combined with reduced capabilities is causing increasing turmoil.

Senior Researcher Mr. William D. Shingleton (who is now in his Master's program at Harvard on Sabbatical) devised a comprehensive method of reviewing countries to be included in this report. At NDCF's Web Site is a sample of the methodology used.... ... should anyone care for a detailed report for academic purposes, e-mail NDCF at NDCF@EROLS.COM .

******** It should be noted that this NDCF conflict report has been used by Associate Press, the Secretary of Defense in testimony before Congress, and by various Intelligence Agencies in their reporting. NDCF has an in-depth report entitled " National Security Concerns into the 21st Century " which is being selectively briefed on Capitol Hill and the Pentagon, which incorporates this data.

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